Evaluation of Biochemical Markers of Early Type-2 Diabetic Nephropathy
Mohapatar TK, Mohapatra RK, Yadav M
Introduction: Micro-vascular complications in type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) is a most common observation. With the improvement of treatment for DM increasing number of diabetic patients live a longer life span resulting in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and ESRD. Knowledge and evaluation of biochemical markers are essential for detection and treatment of DN as well as its prevention. Once the disease is diagnosed at an early stage measures can be undertaken for postponement of disease process. In the current study we have tried to evaluate the efficacy of some of the common biochemical parameters such as serum urea & creatinine, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, creatinine clearance test for early detection of DN.
Material and methods: This is a cross sectional study in which 50 patients (n-50) of known type-2 diabetes mellitus (KD), 50 patients (n-50) of newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes mellitus (NDD) with similar numbers (n-50) healthy controls (HC) were randomly selected. Blood and urine samples were collected from these cases sent for biochemical analysis which included glucose tolerance test (GTT), serum urea and creatinine, creatinine clearance test, urine for microalbumin and protein. Statistical analyses of each parameter were performed.
Results: Mean HbA1c, microalbuminuria and serum creatinine were highest in KD when compare with NDD and controls. Creatinine clearance value were low in KD and bears a significant correlation with duration of diabetes.GTT performed with these subjects showed IGT in NDD patients which is more evident in KD cases. Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) after two hours showed marked IGT in both NDD and KD cases.