Acid base disturbances in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

DR NARWADE NARAYAN B, DR BANSODE TUSHAR V

To estimate pH, pCO2, pO2, bicarbonate (HCO3─), Lactate levels in arterial blood of controls and diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Material and Method: 90 subjects above the age of 40 years were participated in the present study, subdivided in Group 1: 30 diabetic subjects suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 as diagnosed by the physician and random plasma glucose < 400 mg/dl. Group 2: 30 diabetic subjects suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 as diagnosed by the physician and random plasma glucose ≥ 400 mg/dl. Control group: 30 non-diabetic subjects. Arterial blood samples were collected from radial artery in a heparinised syringe. Result: Arterial pH was not significantly increased (>0.05) when Controls (7.405+/-0.044) were compared with Group 1 (7.38+/-0.09) but significantly increased (<0.05) when Controls (7.405+/-0.044) were compared with Group 2 (7.31+/-0.11) as well as significantly increased (<0.05) when Group 1 (7.38+/-0.09) was compared with Group 2 (7.31+/-0.11). Arterial pCO2 was not significantly increased (>0.05) when Controls (39.56+/-4.50) were compared with Group 1 (36.13+/-14.20) but significantly increased (< 0.05) when Controls (39.56+/-4.50) were compared with Group 2 (31.93+/-9.50) as well as not significantly increased (>0.05) when Group 1 (36.13+/-14.20) was compared with Group 2 (31.93+/-9.50). Arterial pO2 was not significantly increased (>0.05) when Controls (93.16+/-5.18) were compared with Group 1 (88.06+/-7.09) but highly significantly increased (<0.001) when Controls (93.16+/-5.18) were compared with Group 2 (81.23+/-12.96) as well as significantly increased (<0.05) when Group 1 (88.06+/-7.09) was compared with Group 2 (81.23+/-12.96). Plasma HCO3 was not significantly increased (>0.05) when Controls (22.65+/-1.58) were compared with Group 1 (20.99+/-6.72) but significantly increased (<0.05) when Controls (22.65+/-1.58) were compared with Group 2 (16.95+/-5.69) as well as significantly increased (<0.05) when Group 1 (20.99+/-6.72) was compared with Group 2 (16.95+/-5.69). Serum lactate was not significantly increased (>0.05) when Controls (1.14+/-0.38) were compared with Group 1 (1.99+/-1.21) but significantly increased (<0.05) when Controls (1.14+/-0.38) were compared with Group 2 (2.68+/-2.56) as well as not significantly increased (>0.05) when Group 1 (1.99+/-1.21) was compared with Group 2 (2.68+/-2.56). Conclusion: Higher degree of hyperglycemia is significantly associated with acid base and electrolyte imbalance in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

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